Saturday, February 27, 2010

Milvus, Accipiter et Columbae (Osius)

SOURCE: The poem comes from Phryx Aesopus Habitu Poetico, by Hieronymus Osius, published in 1574, and online at the University of Mannheim as page images and text scan. This is poem 17 in the collection. For parallel versions, see Perry 486.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons in verse form, or macrons in prose order, or accent marks in prose order, or focusing on the meter. You will find materials for all of these options below. :-)


VERSE MACRONS. Here is the verse text with macrons:

Accipitrem Milvī iunxēre timōre Columbae
Praesidiī saevam spē potiōris avem.
Quī simul est admissus, in hās saevīre vidērī
Iūre volēns, fīdās esse negābat avēs.
Inque columbārī strāgēs hinc ēdita māior,
Quam Milvī poterat vī foris ulla darī.
Parce tuam, quī sunt crūdēlēs crēdere vītam,
Praesidia ex illīs esse cruenta solent.


PROSE MACRONS. Here is the same text with macrons written out in prose word order:

Milvī timōre, columbae accipitrem, saevam avem, iunxēre, praesidiī potiōris spē. Quī simul admissus est, iūre vidērī in hās saevīre volēns, negābat avēs fīdās esse. Et hinc in columbārī strāgēs ēdita māior quam ulla foris Milvī vī darī poterat. Parce vītam tuam crēdere quī crūdēlēs sunt; ex illīs praesidia cruenta esse solent.


STRESS (ACCENT) MARKS. Here is the prose text with accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Milvi timóre, colúmbae accípitrem, saevam avem, iunxére, praesídii potióris spe. Qui simul admíssus est, iure vidéri in has saevíre volens, negábat aves fidas esse. Et hinc in columbári strages édita maior quam ulla foris Milvi vi dari póterat. Parce vitam tuam crédere qui crudéles sunt; ex illis praesídia cruénta esse solent.


ELEGIAC COUPLET METER. Below I have used an interpunct dot · to indicate the metrical elements in each line, and a double line || to indicate the hemistichs of the pentameter line.

Accipi·trem Mil·vī iunx·ēre ti·mōre Co·lumbae
Praesidi·ī sae·vam || spē poti·ōris a·vem.
Quī simul· est ad·missus, in· hās sae·vīre vi·dērī
Iūre vo·lēns, fī·dās || esse ne·gābat a·vēs.
Inque co·lumbā·rī strā·gēs hinc ·ēdita· māior,
Quam Mil·vī pote·rat || vī foris ·ulla da·rī.
Parce tu·am, quī ·sunt crū·dēlēs ·crēdere ·vītam,
Praesidi·~ ex il·līs || esse cru·enta so·lent.


IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story from the 1574 edition of Osius:



What follows is an unmarked version of the prose rendering to faciliate word searches: written out in prose word order: Milvi timore, columbae accipitrem, saevam avem, iunxere, praesidii potioris spe. Qui simul admissus est, iure videri in has saevire volens, negabat aves fidas esse. Et hinc in columbari strages edita maior quam ulla foris Milvi vi dari poterat. Parce vitam tuam credere qui crudeles sunt; ex illis praesidia cruenta esse solent.

Lupus et Histrix (Abstemius)

SOURCE: This fable comes from the first Hecatomythium ("100 Fables") of Laurentius Abstemius (Lorenzo Bevilaqua), a fifteenth-century Italian scholar. Of all the neo-Latin fable collections, Abstemius's was the most popular, and his stories are frequently anthologized in the 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century collections of Aesop's fables in Latin. Here is a 1499 edition of the book online. This is fable 69 in the collection.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Lupus ēsuriēns in histricem intenderat animum, quem tamen, quia sagittīs undique mūnītus erat, invādere nōn audēbat. Excogitātā autem eum perdendī astūtiā, illī suādēre coepit, nē paucō tempore tantum tēlōrum onus tergore portāret, quandoquidem nē aliī quidem sagittariī, nisi cum proeliī tempus īnstāret, portārent. Cui histrix: Adversus lupum, inquit, semper proeliandī tempus esse crēdendum est. Haec fābula innuit, virum sapientem oportēre adversus inimīcōrum et hostium fraudēs semper esse mūnītum.



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with stress accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Lupus esúriens in hístricem inténderat ánimum, quem tamen, quia sagíttis úndique munítus erat, invádere non audébat. Excogitáta autem eum perdéndi astútia, illi suadére coepit, ne pauco témpore tantum telórum onus térgore portáret, quandóquidem ne álii quidem sagittárii, nisi cum proélii tempus instáret, portárent. Cui histrix: "Advérsus lupum (inquit) semper proeliándi tempus esse credéndum est." Haec fábula ínnuit, virum sapiéntem oportére advérsus inimicórum et hóstium fraudes semper esse munítum.



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text. I've put in some line breaks to show the natural pauses in the story:

Lupus esuriens
in histricem intenderat animum,
quem tamen,
quia sagittis undique munitus erat,
invadere non audebat.
Excogitata autem
eum perdendi astutia,
illi suadere coepit,
ne
pauco tempore
tantum telorum onus
tergore portaret,
quandoquidem
ne alii quidem sagittarii,
nisi cum proelii tempus instaret,
portarent.
Cui histrix:
"Adversus lupum (inquit)
semper proeliandi tempus esse
credendum est."
Haec fabula innuit,
virum sapientem oportere
adversus
inimicorum et hostium fraudes
semper esse munitum.




IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source) showing a wise little hedgehog:




Cervus Oculo Captus (Dana)

SOURCE: Liber Primus, by Joseph Dana (1832) at GoogleBooks. For more information and other versions of this fable, see the links list for Perry 75.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Cervus, alterō oculō captus, iuxtā mare pascī cōnsuēverat, ita ut integrum oculum in terram habēret versum: nihil enim perīculī vidēbātur ē marī impendere. Cum autem forte nāvis praeterveherētur, quī in illā erant, dīrectā in cervum sagittā, incautum confīxēre. Ille ictus, "Mē miserum (inquit), quantopere dēceptus fuī, quī ā terrā metuī, undīs frētus, ē quibus mihi mors immittitur."



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with ecclesiastical accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Cervus, áltero óculo captus, iuxta mare pasci consuéverat, ita ut íntegrum óculum in terram habéret versum: nihil enim perículi videbátur e mari impéndere. Cum autem forte navis praeterveherétur, qui in illa erant, dirécta in cervum sagítta, incaútum confixére. Ille ictus, "Me míserum (inquit), quantópere decéptus fui, qui a terra metui, undis fretus, e quibus mihi mors immíttitur."



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text:

Cervus,
altero oculo captus,
iuxta mare
pasci consueverat,
ita ut integrum oculum
in terram haberet versum:
nihil enim periculi
videbatur
e mari impendere.
Cum autem forte
navis praeterveheretur,
qui in illa erant,
directa in cervum sagitta,
incautum confixere.
Ille ictus,
"Me miserum (inquit),
quantopere deceptus fui,
qui
a terra metui,
undis fretus,
e quibus
mihi mors immittitur."



IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source):

Here is another illustration from the Medici Aesop, which is online at the New York Public Library website.


Ursus esuriens (Phaedrus)

SOURCE: For a complete edition of Phaedrus with macrons, see the edition by J.H. Drake at GoogleBooks. This is fable 22 in the Perotti Appendix to Phaedrus. For parallel versions, see Perry 550.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons in verse form, or macrons in prose order, or accent marks in prose order, or focusing on the iambic meter. You will find materials for all of these options below. :-)


VERSE MACRONS. Here is the verse text with macrons (note the short e in haererunt):

Sī quandō in silvīs ursō dēsunt cōpiae,
scopulōsum ad lītus currit et prendēns petram
pilōsa crūra sēnsim dēmittit vadō;
quōrum inter villōs cancrī simul ut haererunt,
in terram adripiēns excutit praedam maris,
ēscāque fruitur passim conlēctā vafer.
Ergō etiam stultīs acuit ingenium famēs.



PROSE MACRONS. Here is the same text with macrons written out in prose word order:

Sī quandō in silvīs cōpiae ursō dēsunt, ad lītus scopulōsum currit et, petram prendēns, crūra pilōsa sēnsim vadō dēmittit; quōrum inter villōs simul ut cancrī haerērunt, in terram adripiēns, maris praedam excutit, et vafer ēscā, passim conlēctā, fruitur. Ergō etiam stultīs famēs ingenium acuit.


STRESS (ACCENT) MARKS. Here is the prose text with accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Si quando in silvis cópiae urso desunt, ad litus scopulósum currit et, petram prendens, crura pilósa sensim vado demíttit; quorum inter villos simul ut cancri haerérunt, in terram adrípiens, maris praedam éxcutit, et vafer esca, passim conlécta, frúitur. Ergo étiam stultis fames ingénium ácuit.


IAMBIC METER. Here is the verse text with some color coding to assist in the iambic meter. The disyllabic elements (iambs/spondees) are not marked, but the trisyllabic elements are color-coded: dactyls are red, anapests are purple, and tribrachs are green (as is any proceleusmaticus, although that is a rare creature); for more information, here are some Notes on Iambic Meter.

Sī quan·d~ in sil·vīs ur·sō dē·sunt cō·piae,
scopulō·s~ ad lī·tus cur·rit et· prendēns· petram
pilō·sa crū·ra sēn·sim dē·mittit· vadō;
quōr~ in·ter vil·lōs can·crī simul· ut hae·rerunt,
in ter·r~ adripi·ēns ex·cutit· praedam· maris,
ēscā·que frui·tur pas·sim con·lēctā· vafer.
Erg~ eti·am stul·tīs acu·it in·genium· famēs.



IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source) showing bears at work:


What follows is an unmarked version of the prose rendering to faciliate word searches:
Si quando in silvis copiae urso desunt, ad litus scopulosum currit et, petram prendens, crura pilosa sensim vado demittit; quorum inter villos simul ut cancri haererunt, in terram adripiens, maris praedam excutit, et vafer esca, passim conlecta, fruitur. Ergo etiam stultis fames ingenium acuit.

Pistor Filiusque et Asinus (Porta Latina)

SOURCE: The text is taken from the Latin textbook Porta Latina: Fables of La Fontaine by Frank Gardner Moore, available at GoogleBooks. You can consult the textbook for vocabulary and also for notes on each fable. For more information and other versions, see Ashliman's useful collection of parallel stories from various European and Middle Eastern cultures. In LaFontaine, the fable is 3.1, Le Meunier son fils et l'Ane.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Pīstor quīdam ac fīlius eius, ille senex, hic puer, sed iam, nisi mē fallit memoria, quīndecim annōrum, ad mercātum ōlim, ut asinum vēnderent, profectī sunt. Quem ut integrīs vīribus eōque maiōre pretiō esset, vīnctīs pedibus suspēnsum portābant, tamquam candēlābrum ferrent, īnfēlīcēs sānē hominēs, rūsticī ac stultissimī! Quī prīmus illōs vīdit, rīsum tenēre nōn potuit. "Quamnam" inquit "fābulam āctūrī sunt istī? Minus profectō asinus ille est quem ita appellant!" Hōc audītō pīstor, cognitā stultitiā suā, asinum solūtum pedibus īre coēgit, querentem mōre ac sermōne suō, quippe quem valdē dēlectāsset portārī. Dominus autem, quī illud nihilī faciēbat, fīlium ascendere iubet, sequitur ipse. Tum forte accidit ut praeterīrent trēs mercātōrēs optimī, quibus displicēbat quod vidērunt. Maximus igitur nātū puerō exclāmat: "Ohē iam!" inquit "dēscende! Nōlī monitōrem exspectāre, adulēscēns, cui cānis capillīs satelles est. Tuum profectō sequī est; ascendat senex." Tum pīstor "Mōs vōbīs" inquit, "virī honestissimī, gerendus est." Dēsilit puer, senex cōnscendit. Paulō post praetereunt trēs virginēs, ē quibus ūna "Pudet" inquit "taedetque vidēre hunc puerum claudicantem, dum stultus ille sedet velut cōnsul, scīlicet aliquid sē esse ratus, vel potius quasi vitulus!" Ille autem ita respondit: "Vitulus sānē hāc aetāte haud mihi videor, expertō crēde! Abī sōdēs!" Post multās ineptiās hinc vel inde iactātās, pīstor, parum rēctē sē fēcisse ratus, fīlium post sē recēpit. Vix trīgintā passūs prōgressī erant, cum aliī etiam maledictīs eōs carpere coepērunt. "Parum sānī" inquit quīdam "hī hominēs! Asinum crēdō nihil amplius posse, ut quī verberibus moritūrus sit. Quid? Ita onerāre miserum asellum! Nōnne hōs miseret famulī, ut ita dīcam, veteris suī? Pellem nōn dubitō quīn in mercātū vēnditūrī sint." Tum rūsticus: "Ita mē dī servent, ut prōrsus īnsānit quī omnibus quotquot sunt hominibus satis facere velit. Nihilō minus cōnēmur sī quā rem ad fīnem perdūcāmus." Dēscendunt ambō; asinus magnificē antecēdit sōlus. Deinde obvius factus quīdam "Quisnam" inquit "hic est mōs, ut asellus ōtiōsē incēdat, dominus incommodō suō ambulet? Utrum hic an ille ad sē fatīgandum nātus est? Moneō ut illum in cistam quandam condant; nam asinō dum parcunt, calceōs sibi conterunt Aequē omnēs asinī sunt." Cui pīstor "Rēctē" inquit "dīcis; concēdō fateorque mē asinum esse. Sed posthāc laudent vituperent, dīcant taceant; quod mihi vīsum erit, id agam." Neque dīxit sōlum, immō probē faciēbat.



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with stress accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Pistor quidam ac fílius eius, ille senex, hic puer, sed iam, nisi me fallit memória, quíndecim annórum, ad mercátum olim, ut ásinum vénderent, profécti sunt. Quem ut íntegris víribus eóque maióre prétio esset, vinctis pédibus suspénsum portábant, tamquam candélabrum ferrent, infelíces sane hómines, rústici ac stultíssimi! Qui primus illos vidit, risum tenére non pótuit. "Quamnam" inquit "fábulam actúri sunt isti? Minus profécto ásinus ille est quem ita appéllant!" Hoc audíto pistor, cógnita stultítia sua, ásinum solútum pédibus ire coégit, queréntem more ac sermóne suo, quippe quem valde delectásset portári. Dóminus autem, qui illud níhili faciébat, fílium ascéndere iubet, séquitur ipse. Tum forte áccidit ut praeterírent tres mercatóres óptimi, quibus displicébat quod vidérunt. Máximus ígitur natu púero exclámat: "Ohe iam!" inquit "descénde! Noli monitórem exspectáre, aduléscens, cui canis capíllis satélles est. Tuum profécto sequi est, ascéndat senex." Tum pistor "Mos vobis" inquit, "viri honestíssimi, geréndus est." Désilit puer, senex conscéndit. Paulo post praetéreunt tres vírgines, e quibus una "Pudet" inquit "taedétque vidére hunc púerum claudicántem, dum stultus ille sedet velut consul, scílicet áliquid se esse ratus, vel pótius quasi vítulus!" Ille autem ita respóndit: "Vítulus sane hac aetáte haud mihi vídeor, expérto crede! Abi sodes!" Post multas inéptias hinc vel inde iactátas, pistor, parum recte se fecísse ratus, fílium post se recépit. Vix trigínta passus progréssi erant, cum álii étiam maledíctis eos cárpere coepérunt. "Parum sani" inquit quidam "hi hómines!" Ásinum credo nihil ámplius posse, ut qui verbéribus moritúrus sit. Quid? Ita oneráre míserum aséllum! Nonne hos míseret fámuli, ut ita dicam, véteris sui? Pellem non dúbito quin in mercátu venditúri sint." Tum rústicus: "Ita me di servent, ut prorsus insánit qui ómnibus quotquot sunt homínibus satis fácere velit. Níhilo minus conémur si qua rem ad finem perducámus." Descéndunt ambo; ásinus magnífice antecédit solus. Deínde óbvius factus quidam "Quisnam" inquit "hic est mos, ut aséllus otióse incédat, dóminus incómmodo suo ámbulet? Utrum hic an ille ad se natus est? Móneo ut illum in cistam quandam condant; nam ásino dum parcunt, cálceos sibi cónterunt. Aeque omnes ásini sunt." Cui pistor "Recte" inquit "dicis; concédo fateórque me ásinum esse. Sed posthac laudent vitúperent, dicant táceant; quod mihi visum erit, id agam." Neque dixit solum, immo probe faciébat.



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text; I've inserted spaces between the segments to make it easier to follow:

Pistor quidam ac filius eius,
ille senex, hic puer,
sed iam, nisi me fallit memoria,
quindecim annorum,
ad mercatum olim,
ut asinum venderent,
profecti sunt.
Quem
ut integris viribus
eoque maiore pretio esset,
vinctis pedibus
suspensum portabant,
tamquam candelabrum ferrent,
infelices sane homines,
rustici ac stultissimi!
Qui primus
illos vidit,
risum tenere non potuit.
"Quamnam" inquit "fabulam
acturi sunt isti?
Minus profecto asinus
ille est quem ita appellant!"
Hoc audito
pistor,
cognita stultitia sua,
asinum solutum
pedibus ire coegit,
querentem more ac sermone suo,
quippe quem
valde delectasset portari.
Dominus autem,
qui illud nihili faciebat,
filium ascendere iubet,
sequitur ipse.
Tum forte accidit
ut praeterirent tres mercatores optimi,
quibus displicebat
quod viderunt.
Maximus igitur natu
puero exclamat:
"Ohe iam!" inquit "descende!
Noli monitorem exspectare,
adulescens,
cui
canis capillis satelles est.
Tuum profecto sequi est;
ascendat senex."
Tum pistor
"Mos vobis" inquit,
"viri honestissimi,
gerendus est."
Desilit puer,
senex conscendit.
Paulo post
praetereunt tres virgines,
e quibus una
"Pudet" inquit "taedetque
videre hunc puerum claudicantem,
dum stultus ille
sedet velut consul,
scilicet aliquid se esse ratus,
vel potius quasi vitulus!"
Ille autem ita respondit:
"Vitulus sane
hac aetate
haud mihi videor,
experto crede!
Abi sodes!"
Post multas ineptias
hinc vel inde iactatas,
pistor,
parum recte se fecisse
ratus,
filium post se recepit.
Vix triginta passus progressi erant,
cum alii etiam
maledictis eos carpere coeperunt.
"Parum sani" inquit quidam
"hi homines!
Asinum credo
nihil amplius posse,
ut qui verberibus moriturus sit.
Quid?
Ita onerare miserum asellum!
Nonne hos miseret
famuli, ut ita dicam, veteris sui?
Pellem non dubito quin
in mercatu vendituri sint."
Tum rusticus:
"Ita me di servent,
ut prorsus insanit
qui
omnibus quotquot sunt hominibus
satis facere velit.
Nihilo minus conemur
si qua
rem ad finem perducamus."
Descendunt ambo;
asinus magnifice antecedit solus.
Deinde obvius factus quidam
"Quisnam" inquit "hic est mos,
ut asellus otiose incedat,
dominus incommodo suo ambulet?
Utrum hic an ille
ad se fatigandum natus est?
Moneo
ut illum
in cistam quandam condant;
nam asino dum parcunt,
calceos sibi conterunt.
Aeque omnes asini sunt."
Cui pistor
"Recte" inquit "dicis;
concedo fateorque
me asinum esse.
Sed posthac
laudent vituperent, dicant taceant;
quod mihi visum erit, id agam."
Neque dixit solum,
immo probe faciebat.



IMAGE. Here is the illustration of the fable by Aractingy:

Thursday, February 25, 2010

Lupus et Canis Macer (Porta Latina)

SOURCE: The text is taken from the Latin textbook Porta Latina: Fables of La Fontaine by Frank Gardner Moore, available at GoogleBooks. You can consult the textbook for vocabulary and also for notes on each fable. For more information and other versions of this fable, see Perry 134. In LaFontaine, the fable is 9.10, Le Loup et le Chien maigre.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Piscis ille parvulus, quamquam velut philosophus optimē loquēbātur, nihilō minus coctus est. Quō exemplō meram imprūdentiam esse mōnstrāvī maiōris praemiī spē quod in manū esset mittere. Piscātor noster rēctē ēgit; neque tamen minus rēctē pisciculus; dīcit enim prō vītā suā quisque quidquid potest. Nunc autem aliō exemplō illud cōnfirmandum est. Lupus igitur quīdam tam stultus sānē quam sapiēns fuit piscātor ille, canem extrā vīcum inventum sēcum abreptūrus erat. Hic autem maciem suam ostendēns "Maiestātī" inquit "tuae placeat nōndum mē, tam tenuem, auferre; immō exspectā. Nam dominus meus fīliam ūnicam uxōrem cuidam datūrus est, ut epulandō nōn possim facere quīn pinguis fīam." Crēdulus itaque lupus canem omīsit. Paucīs post diēbus regressus, sī forte iam canis capiendus eset, callidum illum domī invēnit. Quī lupō per cancellōs "Mox" inquit "exībō; et sī parumper expectāre vīs, iam ego et iānitor tibi dictō audientēs erimus." Hic autem canis erat immānis, quī lupōrum cervicēs probē frangere posset. Lupus igitur nesciō quid suspicāns "Iānitōrem" inquit "vestrum valēre iubeō." Inde currendō ēvāsit, alacer ille quidem, sed parum prōspiciēns, quippe quī artem suam nōndum bene exercēret.


ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with ecclesiastical accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Piscis ille párvulus, quamquam velut philósophus óptime loquebátur, níhilo minus coctus est. Quo exémplo meram imprudéntiam esse monstrávi maióris praémii spe quod in manu esset míttere. Piscátor noster recte egit; neque tamen minus recte piscículus; dicit enim pro vita sua quisque quidquid potest. Nunc autem alio exémplo illud confirmándum est. Lupus ígitur quidam tam stultus sane quam sápiens fuit piscátor ille, canem extra vicum invéntum secum abreptúrus erat. Hic autem máciem suam osténdens "Maiestáti" inquit "tuae pláceat nondum me, tam ténuem, auférre; immo exspécta. Nam dóminus meus fíliam únicam uxórem cuidam datúrus est, ut epulándo non possim fácere quin pinguis fiam." Crédulus ítaque lupus canem omísit. Paucis post diébus regréssus, si forte iam canis capiéndus eset, cállidum illum domi invénit. Qui lupo per cancéllos "Mox" inquit "exíbo; et si parúmper expectáre vis, iam ego et iánitor tibi dicto audiéntes érimus." Hic autem canis erat immánis, qui lupórum cérvices probe frángere posset. Lupus ígitur néscio quid súspicans "Ianitórem" inquit "vestrum valére iúbeo." Inde curréndo evásit, alacer ille quidem, sed parum prospíciens, quippe qui artem suam nondum bene exercéret.


UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text; I've inserted spaces between the segments to make it easier to follow:

Piscis ille parvulus,
quamquam velut philosophus
optime loquebatur,
nihilo minus coctus est.
Quo exemplo
meram imprudentiam esse
monstravi
maioris praemii spe
quod in manu esset mittere.
Piscator noster recte egit;
neque tamen minus recte pisciculus;
dicit enim
pro vita sua
quisque quidquid potest.
Nunc autem alio exemplo
illud confirmandum est.
Lupus igitur quidam
tam stultus sane
quam sapiens fuit piscator ille,
canem
extra vicum inventum
secum abrepturus erat.
Hic autem
maciem suam ostendens
"Maiestati" inquit "tuae
placeat nondum me,
tam tenuem,
auferre;
immo exspecta.
Nam dominus meus
filiam unicam uxorem
cuidam daturus est,
ut epulando non possim facere
quin pinguis fiam."
Credulus itaque lupus
canem omisit.
Paucis post diebus regressus,
si forte iam canis capiendus eset,
callidum illum domi invenit.
Qui
lupo per cancellos
"Mox" inquit "exibo;
et si parumper expectare vis,
iam ego et ianitor
tibi dicto audientes erimus."
Hic autem canis erat immanis,
qui luporum cervices
probe frangere posset.
Lupus igitur
nescio quid suspicans
"Ianitorem" inquit "vestrum
valere iubeo."
Inde currendo evasit,
alacer ille quidem,
sed parum prospiciens,
quippe qui
artem suam nondum bene exerceret.



IMAGE. Here is the illustration of the fable by Aractingy:

Corvus aegrotus (Osius)

SOURCE: The poem comes from Phryx Aesopus Habitu Poetico, by Hieronymus Osius, published in 1574, and online at the University of Mannheim as page images and text scan. This is poem 14 in the collection. For parallel versions, see Perry 324.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons in verse form, or macrons in prose order, or accent marks in prose order, or focusing on the meter. You will find materials for all of these options below. :-)


VERSE MACRONS. Here is the verse text with macrons:

Vexārent morbī cum saeva perīcula Corvum,
Spēs sua cuī vītae paene cadūca fuit:
Prō mē, māter, ait, dīvōs venerābere vōtīs,
Addereque hīs lacrimīs experiēre modum.
Cuī sīc fāta parēns: ego nullō nūmine spērem
Admittente meās posse valēre precēs.
Quod tū nōn veritus sīs exercēre rapīnās,
Victima Diīs quotiēs ulla cremāta fuit.
Plūribus obfuerit quī, dum sors laeta manēbat,
Rēbus in adversīs ecquis adesse volet?


PROSE MACRONS. Here is the same text with macrons written out in prose word order:

Cum perīcula morbī saeva corvum vexārent, cuī spēs vītae sua paene cadūca fuit, ait: "Māter, vōtīs prō mē dīvōs venerābere et modum lacrimīs hīs addere experiēre." Parēns sīc corvō fāta: "Admittente nūmine nullō ego spērem precēs meās valēre posse, quod tū nōn veritus sīs rapīnās exercēre, quotiēs victima ulla Diīs cremāta fuit." Quī, dum sors laeta manēbat, plūribus obfuerit, ecquis eī adesse volet in rēbus adversīs?


STRESS (ACCENT) MARKS. Here is the prose text with accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Cum perícula morbi saeva corvum vexárent, cui spes vitae sua paene cadúca fuit, ait: "Mater, votis pro me divos venerábere et modum lácrimis his áddere experiére." Parens sic corvo fata: "Admitténte númine nullo ego sperem preces meas valére posse, quod tu non véritus sis rapínas exercére, quóties víctima ulla Diis cremáta fuit." Qui, dum sors laeta manébat, plúribus obfúerit, ecquis ei adésse volet in rebus advérsis?


ELEGIAC COUPLET METER. Below I have used an interpunct dot · to indicate the metrical elements in each line, and a double line || to indicate the hemistichs of the pentameter line.

Vexā·rent mor·bī cum· saeva pe·rīcula· Corvum,
Spēs sua· cuī vī·tae || paene ca·dūca fu·it:
Prō mē, māter, a·it, dī·vōs vene·rābere ·vōtīs,
Addere·qu~ hīs lacri·mīs || experi·ēre mo·dum.
Cuī sīc fāta pa·rēns: ego· nullō· nūmine· spērem
Admit·tente me·ās || posse va·lēre pre·cēs.
Quod tū· nōn veri·tus sīs· exer·cēre ra·pīnās,
Victima ·Diīs quoti·ēs || ulla cre·māta fu·it.
Plūribus· obfue·rit quī,· dum sors· laeta ma·nēbat,
Rēbus in· adver·sīs || ecquis a·desse vo·let?


Here is the illustration of the fable by Francis Barlow - this shows an ailing kite, not a crow (image source):





What follows is an unmarked version of the prose rendering to faciliate word searches: Cum pericula morbi saeva corvum vexarent, cui spes vitae sua paene caduca fuit, ait: "Mater, votis pro me divos venerabere et modum lacrimis his addere experiere." Parens sic corvo fata: "Admittente numine nullo ego sperem preces meas valere posse, quod tu non veritus sis rapinas exercere, quoties victima ulla Diis cremata fuit." Qui, dum sors laeta manebat, pluribus obfuerit, ecquis ei adesse volet in rebus adversis?

Apes et Pastor (Dana)

SOURCE: Liber Primus, by Joseph Dana (1832) at GoogleBooks. For more information and other versions of this fable, see the links list for Perry 400.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Apēs in cavā quercū mel faciēbant. Pastor vērō in eās, operī intentās, forte incidit; idque sēdulō agēbat, ut favōs auferret; quod cum sēnsissent apēs, furōre percitae hinc et illinc circumvolant, suīsque hostem abigunt acūleīs. Ille tamen victus, "Valēte (inquit), Ō ferōculae, aeternum valēte! Nōn adeō mel dēsīderō, ut ā vōbīs illud accipiam."



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with ecclesiastical accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Apes in cava quercu mel faciébant. Pastor vero in eas, óperi inténtas, forte íncidit; idque sédulo agébat, ut favos auférret; quod cum sensíssent apes, furóre pércitae hinc et illinc circúmvolant, suísque hostem ábigunt acúleis. Ille tamen victus, "Valéte (inquit), O feróculae, aetérnum valéte! Non ádeo mel desídero, ut a vobis illud accípiam."



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text:

Apes
in cava quercu
mel faciebant.
Pastor vero
in eas, operi intentas,
forte incidit;
idque sedulo agebat,
ut favos auferret;
quod
cum sensissent apes,
furore percitae
hinc et illinc circumvolant,
suisque hostem abigunt aculeis.
Ille tamen victus,
"Valete (inquit),
O feroculae,
aeternum valete!
Non adeo mel desidero,
ut a vobis illud accipiam."



IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source) showing a swarm of bees!




Mus et Felis (Abstemius)

SOURCE: This fable comes from the first Hecatomythium ("100 Fables") of Laurentius Abstemius (Lorenzo Bevilaqua), a fifteenth-century Italian scholar. Of all the neo-Latin fable collections, Abstemius's was the most popular, and his stories are frequently anthologized in the 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century collections of Aesop's fables in Latin. Here is a 1499 edition of the book online. This is fable 67 in the collection.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Mūrēs complūrēs in cavō parietis commorantēs contemplābantur fēlem, quae in tabulātō capite dēmissō et tristī vultū recumbēbat. Tunc ūnus ex eīs: Hoc animal, inquit, benignum admodum et mīt e vidētur. Vultū enim ipsō sanctimōniam quandam praefert, volō ipsum alloquī et cum eō indissolūbilem nectere amīcitiam. Quae cum dīxisset et propius accessisset, ā fele captus et dīlacerātus est. Tunc cēterī hoc videntēs sēcum dīcēbant: nōn est profectō, nōn est vultuī temerē crēdendum. Haec fābula innuit, nōn ex vultū, sed ex operibus hominēs iūdicandōs, cum sub ovīlī pelle saepe ātrōcēs lupī dēlitescant.



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with stress accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Mures complúres in cavo paríetis commorántes contemplabántur felem, quae in tabuláto cápite demísso et tristi vultu recumbébat. Tunc unus ex eis: "Hoc ánimal (inquit) benígnum ádmodum et mite vidétur. Vultu enim ipso sanctimóniam quandam praefert; volo ipsum álloqui et cum eo indissolúbilem néctere amicítiam." Quae cum dixísset et própius accessísset, a fele captus et dilacerátus est. Tunc céteri hoc vidéntes secum dicébant: "Non est profécto vúltui témere credéndum." Haec fábula ínnuit, non ex vultu, sed ex opéribus hómines iudicándos, cum sub ovíli pelle saepe atróces lupi delitéscant.



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text. I've put in some line breaks to show the natural pauses in the story:

Mures complures
in cavo parietis commorantes
contemplabantur felem,
quae in tabulato
capite demisso et tristi vultu
recumbebat.
Tunc unus ex eis:
"Hoc animal (inquit)
benignum admodum et mite videtur.
Vultu enim ipso
sanctimoniam quandam praefert;
volo ipsum alloqui
et cum eo
indissolubilem nectere amicitiam."
Quae cum dixisset
et propius accessisset,
a fele captus et dilaceratus est.
Tunc ceteri
hoc videntes secum dicebant:
"Non est profecto
vultui temere credendum."
Haec fabula innuit,
non ex vultu, sed ex operibus
homines iudicandos,
cum
sub ovili pelle
saepe atroces lupi delitescant.




IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source), showing the eventual fate of the poor foolish mouse:




Asinus et Galli (Phaedrus)

SOURCE: For a complete edition of Phaedrus with macrons, see the edition by J.H. Drake at GoogleBooks. This is fable 4.1 in Phaedrus. For parallel versions, see Perry 164.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons in verse form, or macrons in prose order, or accent marks in prose order, or focusing on the iambic meter. You will find materials for all of these options below. :-)


VERSE MACRONS. Here is the verse text with macrons:

Quī nātus est īnfēlix, nōn vītam modo
trīstem dēcurrit, vērum post obitum quoque
persequitur illum dūra fātī miseria.
Gallī Cybēbēs circum in questūs dūcere
asinum solēbant, bāiulantem sarcinās.
Is cum labōre et plāgis esset mortuus,
dētractā pelle sibi fēcērunt tympana.
Rogātī mox ā quōdam, dēliciō suō
quidnam fēcissent, hōc locūtī sunt modō:
"Putābat sē post mortem sēcūrum fore:
ecce aliae plāgae congeruntur mortuō!"



PROSE MACRONS. Here is the same text with macrons written out in prose word order:

Quī nātus est īnfēlix, nōn modo vītam trīstem dēcurrit, vērum post obitum quoque dūra fātī miseria illum persequitur. Gallī Cybēbēs solēbant asinum, sarcinās bāiulantem, in questūs circum dūcere. Is, cum esset mortuus labōre et plāgis, pelle dētractā tympana sibi fēcērunt. Mox ā quōdam rogātī, quidnam dēliciō suō fēcissent, hōc modō locūtī sunt: "Putābat sē sēcūrum fore post mortem; ecce: mortuō, aliae plāgae congeruntur!"


STRESS (ACCENT) MARKS. Here is the prose text with accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Qui natus est infélix, non modo vitam tristem decúrrit, verum post óbitum quoque dura fati miséria illum perséquitur. Galli Cybébes solébant ásinum, sárcinas baiulántem, in questus circum dúcere. Is, cum esset mórtuus labóre et plagis, pelle detrácta týmpana sibi fecérunt. Mox a quodam rogáti, quidnam delício suo fecíssent, hoc modo locúti sunt: "Putábat se secúrum fore post mortem; ecce: mórtuo, áliae plagae congerúntur!"


IAMBIC METER. Here is the verse text with some color coding to assist in the iambic meter. The disyllabic elements (iambs/spondees) are not marked, but the trisyllabic elements are color-coded: dactyls are red, anapests are purple, and tribrachs are green (as is any proceleusmaticus, although that is a rare creature); for more information, here are some Notes on Iambic Meter.

Quī nā·tus es·t īnfē·lix, nōn· vītam· modo
trīstem· dēcur
·rit, vē·rum post· obitum· quoque
persequi·tur il·lum dū·ra fā·tī mise·ria.
Gallī· Cybē·bēs cir·c~ in ques·tūs dū·cere
asinum· solē·bant, bā·iulan·tem sar·cinās.
Is cum· labō·r~ et plā·gis es·set mor·tuus,
dētrac·tā pel·le sibi· fēcē·runt tym·pana.
Rogā·tī mox· ā quō·dam, dē·liciō· suō
quidnam· fēcis·sent, hōc· locū·tī sunt· modō:
"Putā·bat sē· post mor·tem sē·cūrum· fore:
ecc~ ali·ae plā·gae con·gerun·tur mor·tuō!"



IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source).


What follows is an unmarked version of the prose rendering to faciliate word searches:
Qui natus est infelix, non modo vitam tristem decurrit, verum post obitum quoque dura fati miseria illum persequitur. Galli Cybebes solebant asinum, sarcinas baiulantem, in questus circum ducere. Is, cum esset mortuus labore et plagis, pelle detracta tympana sibi fecerunt. Mox a quodam rogati, quidnam delicio suo fecissent, hoc modo locuti sunt: "Putabat se securum fore post mortem; ecce: mortuo, aliae plagae congeruntur!"

Wednesday, February 24, 2010

Arundo et Olea (Dana)

SOURCE: Liber Primus, by Joseph Dana (1832) at GoogleBooks. For more information and other versions of this fable, see the links list for Perry 70, which is a similar story about an oak and a reed.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Disceptābant dē fortitūdine olea et arundo. Cum autem olea arundinī exprōbrāvit mōbilitātem, et quod ad quamvīs illa exiguam auram tremeret, tacuit arundo. Nōn ita diū post, ingruentibus ventīs, olea ēruta fuit: arundo autem submissiōne suā integritātem servāvit.



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with ecclesiastical accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Disceptábant de fortitúdine ólea et arúndo. Cum autem ólea arúndini exprobrávit mobilitátem, et quod ad quamvis illa exíguam auram trémeret, tácuit arúndo. Non ita diu post, ingruéntibus ventis, ólea éruta fuit: arúndo autem submissióne sua integritátem servávit.



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text:

Disceptabant de fortitudine
olea et arundo.
Cum autem olea
arundini exprobravit mobilitatem,
et quod
ad quamvis illa exiguam auram
tremeret,
tacuit arundo.
Non ita diu post,
ingruentibus ventis,
olea eruta fuit:
arundo autem
submissione sua
integritatem servavit.



Here is an illustration from the Medici Aesop, which is online at the New York Public Library website.




Vidua et Asinus (Abstemius)

SOURCE: This fable comes from the first Hecatomythium ("100 Fables") of Laurentius Abstemius (Lorenzo Bevilaqua), a fifteenth-century Italian scholar. Of all the neo-Latin fable collections, Abstemius's was the most popular, and his stories are frequently anthologized in the 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century collections of Aesop's fables in Latin. Here is a 1499 edition of the book online. This is fable 80 in the collection.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Vidua quaedam, coelibātum exōsa, nūbere cupiēbat sed nōn audēbat, verita vulgī irrīsiōnēs, quī maledictīs eās solet incessere quae ad secundās trānseunt nuptiās. Sed commāter eius, quam contemnendae essent populī vōcēs hāc arte mōnstrāvit. Iussit enim asinum album, quem vidua habēbat, viridī colōre dēpingī et per omnēs vīcōs circumdūcī. Quod cum fieret, tanta admīrātiōne ab initiō omnēs invāserat, ut nōn sōlum puerī, vērum etiam senēs hāc rē īnsolita mōtī asinum animī grātiā comitārentur. Deinde cum huiusmodī animal quotīdiē per urbem dūcerētur, dēfiērunt admīrārī. "Itidem (inquit ad viduam commāter) ēveniet tibi. Sī enim virum accēperis, aliquot diēs eris fābula vulgī. Deinde hic sermo conticescet." Haec fābula indicat nullam rem esse tam dignam admīrātiōne, quae diūturnitāte temporis nōn dēsinat esse mīrāculum.



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with stress accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Vídua quaedam, coelibátum exósa, núbere cupiébat sed non audébat, vérita vulgi irrisiónes, qui maledíctis eas solet incéssere quae ad secúndas tránseunt núptias. Sed commáter eius, quam contemnéndae essent pópuli voces hac arte monstrávit. Iussit enim ásinum album, quem vídua habébat, víridi colóre depíngi et per omnes vicos circumdúci. Quod cum fíeret, tanta admirátio ab inítio omnes inváserat, ut non solum púeri, verum étiam senes hac re insólita moti ásinum ánimi grátia comitaréntur. Deínde cum huiúsmodi ánimal quotídie per urbem ducerétur, defiérunt admirári. "Ítidem (inquit ad víduam commáter) evéniet tibi. Si enim virum accéperis, áliquot dies eris fábula vulgi. Deínde hic sermo conticéscet." Haec fábula índicat nullam rem esse tam dignam admiratióne, quae diuturnitáte témporis non désinat esse miráculum.



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text. I've put in some line breaks to show the natural pauses in the story:

Vidua quaedam,
coelibatum exosa,
nubere cupiebat
sed non audebat,
verita vulgi irrisiones,
qui maledictis
eas solet incessere
quae
ad secundas transeunt nuptias.
Sed commater eius,
quam contemnendae essent
populi voces
hac arte monstravit.
Iussit enim asinum album,
quem vidua habebat,
viridi colore depingi
et per omnes vicos circumduci.
Quod cum fieret,
tanta admiratio
ab initio omnes invaserat,
ut non solum pueri,
verum etiam senes
hac re insolita moti
asinum animi gratia comitarentur.
Deinde
cum huiusmodi animal
quotidie per urbem duceretur,
defierunt admirari.
"Itidem
(inquit ad viduam commater)
eveniet tibi.
Si enim virum acceperis,
aliquot dies
eris fabula vulgi.
Deinde hic sermo conticescet."
Haec fabula indicat
nullam rem
esse tam dignam admiratione,
quae diuturnitate temporis
non desinat esse miraculum.




IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source), "Green Donkey," by one of my very favorite painters, Marc Chagall:



Cervus Cornua Sua Laudans (Osius)

SOURCE: The poem comes from Phryx Aesopus Habitu Poetico, by Hieronymus Osius, published in 1574, and online at the University of Mannheim as page images and text scan. This is poem 37 in the collection. For parallel versions, see Perry 74.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons in verse form, or macrons in prose order, or accent marks in prose order, or focusing on the meter. You will find materials for all of these options below. :-)


VERSE MACRONS. Here is the verse text with macrons:

Appārent Cervō vitreīs rāmōsa sub undīs,
Cornua, laudārī posse sat illa negat.
At fuga per dēnsam cum dūceret anxia silvam,
Plūs quam prōfuerint illa, nocēre videt.
Dēvovet haec ergo, et iam crūra fugācia laudat,
Quae rōbusta parum dīxerat ante sibī.
Nōn, quae pulchra tibī sint, esse potissima crēdās,
Sed quibus ūtilitas māior inesse solet.


PROSE MACRONS. Here is the same text with macrons written out in prose word order:

Cervō cornua rāmōsa appārent sub undīs vitreīs; negat illa sat laudārī posse. At cum per silvam dēnsam fuga anxia dūceret, videt illa nocēre plūs quam prōfuerint. Ergo haec dēvovet, et iam crūra fugācia laudat, quae ante dīxerat sibī parum rōbusta. Nōn crēdās potissima esse, quae tibī pulchra sint, sed quibus ūtilitas māior inesse solet.


STRESS (ACCENT) MARKS. Here is the prose text with accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Cervo córnua ramósa appárent sub undis vítreis; negat illa sat laudári posse. At cum per silvam densam fuga ánxia dúceret, videt illa nocére plus quam profúerint. Ergo haec dévovet, et iam crura fugácia laudat, quae ante díxerat sibi parum robústa. Non credas potíssima esse, quae tibi pulchra sint, sed quibus utílitas maior inésse solet.


ELEGIAC COUPLET METER. Below I have used an interpunct dot · to indicate the metrical elements in each line, and a double line || to indicate the hemistichs of the pentameter line.

Appā·rent Cer·vō vitre·īs rā·mōsa sub· undīs,
Cornua,· laudā·rī || posse sat ·illa ne·gat.
At fuga· per dēn·sam cum· dūceret· anxia· silvam,
Plūs quam ·prōfue·rint || illa, no·cēre vi·det.
Dēvovet· haec er·g~, et iam· crūra fu·gācia ·laudat,
Quae rō·busta pa·rum || dīxerat ·ante si·bī.
Nōn quae ·pulchra ti·bī sint ·esse po·tissima ·crēdās
Sed quibus ·ūtil·itas || māior i·nesse so·let.


IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story from the 1574 edition of Osius:


What follows is an unmarked version of the prose rendering to faciliate word searches: Cervo cornua ramosa apparent sub undis vitreis; negat illa sat laudari posse. At cum per silvam densam fuga anxia duceret, videt illa nocere plus quam profuerint. Ergo haec devovet, et iam crura fugacia laudat, quae ante dixerat sibi parum robusta. Non credas potissima esse, quae tibi pulchra sint, sed quibus utilitas maior inesse solet.

Accipitres et Columbae (J&D)

SOURCE: Second Latin Book: Jacobs' and Doering's Latin Reader (1845) at GoogleBooks. This is one of the fables that comes from Abstemius.

READ OUT LOUD. Choose which marked text you prefer to practice with - macrons or accent marks - and read the text out loud until you feel comfortable and confident. Then, try reading the unmarked text at the bottom. It should be easy for you after practicing with the marked texts. :-)


MACRONS. Here is the text with macrons:

Accipitrēs quondam ācerrimē inter sē belligerābant. Hōs columbae in grātiam redūcere cōnātae effēcērunt, ut illī pācem inter sē facerent. Quā firmātā, accipitrēs vim suam in ipsās columbās convertērunt. Haec fābula docet potentiōrum discordiās imbēcilliōribus saepe prōdesse.



ACCENT MARKS. Here is the text with ecclesiastical accents, plus some color-coding for the words of three or more syllables (blue: penultimate stress; red: antepenultimate stress):

Accípitres quondam acérrime inter se belligerábant. Hos colúmbae in grátiam redúcere conátae effecérunt, ut illi pacem inter se fácerent. Qua firmáta, accípitres vim suam in ipsas colúmbas convertérunt. Haec fábula docet potentiórum discórdias imbecillióribus saepe prodésse.



UNMARKED TEXT. Here is the unmarked text - after practicing with the marked text that you prefer, you should not have any trouble with the unmarked text:

Accipitres quondam acerrime inter se belligerabant. Hos columbae in gratiam reducere conatae effecerunt, ut illi pacem inter se facerent. Qua firmata, accipitres vim suam in ipsas columbas converterunt. Haec fabula docet potentiorum discordias imbecillioribus saepe prodesse.



IMAGE. Here is an illustration for the story (image source), showing hawks fighting: